Solar panel water pumps are used in private houses, cottages, villages, medical clinics, etc. The pump can be powered by its own photovoltaic array, or it can be powered by the main system that powers the system. An elevated storage tank may be used, or a second pump called a booster pump may provide the necessary water pressure. Or the main battery system can provide storage instead of a tank. When sunlight is scarce, collecting rainwater can supplement solar pumping. To design a system, it helps to view the entire picture and consider all resources.
Ranchers in the Americas, Australia and Southern Africa are enthusiastic users of solar pumps. Their water sources are scattered over a wide range of pastures, with few power lines and high transportation and maintenance costs. Some ranchers use solar pumps to distribute several kilometers (more than 5 kilometers) of pipelines. Others use portable systems and move them from one water source to another.
Solar panel pumps are used in small farms, orchards, vineyards and gardens. It is most economical to power the pump directly from the photovoltaic array (without batteries), store the water in the water tank, and then distribute the pump by gravity flow. In the event of pressurization, the battery stabilizes voltage to maintain consistent flow and distribution, and can eliminate the need for storage tanks. The battery also introduces cost, complexity, and additional maintenance.