Surface pumps are suitable where the water supply is 20 feet or less from the surface. They are great for use with shallow wells, streams, ponds or storage tanks.
The surface pumps remains out of water and in the open. They are installed where the water table is within a depth of 10 metres. As they need to be on the surface, these pumps are easier to install and maintain. They are, however, not apt for deep water table.
The water would have to be close to the surface to use a surface pump. Drafting or drawing water from a static source requires a vacuum allowing air pressure to force the water into the pump, like drawing a drink in with a straw. With a perfect vacuum you can draw water approximately 29 feet or 9 meters at sea level. Realistically about 20 feet is maximum for most good pumps.
Solar Surface Pump:
Possible Maximum Head: 5–10meter below land lifting capacity.
Waterproof: It cannot be placed inside borewell. You have to protect it from water.
In the case of a borewell with a water table deeper than 10-15 metres, a submersible pump is used. If it is an open well, pond, etc, then using a surface pump is better. Also, the surface pump is installed when the water level is less than 10 metres.